How Google Earth Works 1 (Google Earth的秘密 1)

Most of us have been using one online mapping program or another for years now. They’re a godsend for those of us who get lost within a 3-mile radius of our homes, and they’re just plain fun for people who enjoy figuring out where stuff is. With this in mind, imagine how amazing Google Earth must be for it to elicit awe from the online community and cause South Korea to demand changes to the program.

Google Earth is no ordinary mapping application. Type "Denver, CO" into the Google Earth search box, and yes, you can learn where Denver is in relation to Grand Junction and how to get from your address to 1600 Curtis St. in downtown Denver. In the same search, though, you can also learn that 1600 Curtis St. is in the 80202 zip code and that there are 12 Starbucks Coffee shops within a half-mile radius of that address; you can zoom out from 1600 Curtis St. and watch it disappear into a satellite view of the Earth and then zoom back in as if you were falling onto 1600 Curtis St. from space; and if you click on "Forbidden City" in the "Sightseeing" column, you can see what it would look like to fly Superman-style from 1600 Curtis St. in Denver to the Forbidden Palace in Beijing, China.

And you thought the world was small before.

The application is fairly easy to use, but there are a lot of functions to try out. So let’s see how you can get started with Google Earth.

我们很多人都用过在线地图程序一阵子了,对于那些在自己家周围3英里内迷路的人,后者以搜奇探秘的为乐的人来说,这可是个好东东。你要知道,Google Earth的威力是如此强大以致于韩国政府曾要求改变它(韩国曾抗议Google Earth的应用使本国安全受到了威胁)。

Google Earth神通广大,在地图类的应用中绝对是个狠角色。在Google Earth的搜索栏中输入“Denver, CO”,没错,你就能知道相对于Grand Junction的Denver的位置,还有怎么你的位置到Denver城区的Curtis街1600号。同样在这次搜索中, 你还能知道Curtis街1600号的邮政编码是80202,在此半英里的周围有12家星巴克咖啡馆。你可以缩小地图直到Curtis街1600号消失在卫星视图中,或者不断放大地图感受从天而降的感觉。如果这是在景点栏中输入“Forbidden City”,你会发现自己好像超人一样瞬间从Denver的Curtis街1600号飞到了中国北京的紫禁城。

你会发现自己以前原来是井底之蛙。

这个程序使用起来很方便,你可以尝试各种各样的功能。接下来让我们开始我们的Google Earth之旅吧。


Special thanks to Rain for her great advise


How sleep works 2 (睡眠的秘密 2)

Sleep and the Brain

If you attach an electroencephalograph to a person’s head, you can record the person’s brainwave activity. An awake and relaxed person generates alpha waves, which are consistent oscillations at about 10 cycles per second. An alert person generates beta waves, which are about twice as fast.

During sleep, two slower patterns called theta waves and delta waves take over. Theta waves have oscillations in the range of 3.5 to 7 cycles per second, and delta waves have oscillations of less than 3.5 cycles per second. As a person falls asleep and sleep deepens, the brainwave patterns slow down. The slower the brainwave patterns, the deeper the sleep — a person deep in delta wave sleep is hardest to wake up.

stages of sleep
Sleep stages

At several points during the night, something unexpected happens — rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs. Most people experience three to five intervals of REM sleep per night, and brainwaves during this period speed up to awake levels. If you ever watch a person or a dog experiencing REM sleep, you will see their eyes flickering back and forth rapidly. In many dogs and some people, arms, legs and facial muscles will twitch during REM sleep. Periods of sleep other than REM sleep are know as NREM (non-REM) sleep.

REM sleep is when you dream. If you wake up a person during REM sleep, the person can vividly recall dreams. If you wake up a person during NREM sleep, generally the person will not be dreaming.

You must have both REM and NREM sleep to get a good night’s sleep. A normal person will spend about 25 percent of the night in REM sleep, and the rest in NREM. A REM session — a dream — lasts five to 30 minutes.

Medicine can hamper your ability to get a good night’s sleep. Many medicines, including most sleeping medicines, change the quality of sleep and the REM component of it.

 

睡眠和大脑

把脑电图仪接在人的头部,就能够记录脑波活动。一个清醒和放松的人的产生alpha脑波,周期稳定在每秒十次。一个警觉的人产生beta脑波,周期为每秒二十次。

在睡眠期间,人类会产生两种缓慢一些的脑波,theta脑波和delta脑波。Theta脑波的周期为每秒3.5至7次,delta脑波更慢,每秒只有3.5个周期。当人们入睡并逐渐进入沉睡状态时,脑波活动也会放缓。脑波越缓慢,说明睡的越深,当一个人在进行delta脑波活动时是最难被叫醒的。

在晚上的某些时刻,会发生一件出乎意料的事 — 快速眼部活动REM。大多数人都会在每天晚上进行3到5次REM,这时的脑部活动会加速到接近清醒的水平。如果你见过人或者狗进行REM睡眠的样子,你会发现他们的眼部迅速的前后转动,在很多狗和部分人类中,前臂、腿和面部肌肉还会发生抽动。不发生REM时候的睡眠也被称作非眼部快速活动睡眠NREM(没找到专业词汇,只按字面翻译)。

进行REM睡眠的时候会做梦,如果你这是叫醒一个人,他会绘声绘色的给你讲述他刚做的梦。如果你在NREM睡眠的时候叫醒一个人,通常他没有在做梦。

人类会交替的进行REM睡眠和NREM睡眠来保证他们睡个好觉。一个普通人在整晚的睡眠中有25%进行REM睡眠,75%进行NREM睡眠。一次REM睡眠,也就是做一次梦,通常持续5到30分钟。

药物会降低人的睡眠质量。很多药物,包括大多数抗失眠药,改变了REM睡眠规律从而影响了整体睡眠质量。


How sleep works 1 (睡觉的秘密 1)

1. introduction to how sleep works

Sleep is one of those funny things about being a human being — you just have to do it. Have you ever wondered why? And what about the crazy dreams, like the one where a bad person is chasing you and you can’t run or yell. Does that make any sense?

Dreaming occurs in the fifth stage of sleep.

If you have ever wondered about why people have to sleep or what causes dreams, then read on. In this article, you’ll find out all about sleep and what it does for you.

Characteristics of Sleep
We all know how sleep looks — when we see someone sleeping, we recognize the following characteristics:

  • If possible, the person will lie down to go to sleep.
  • The person’s eyes are closed.
  • The person doesn’t hear anything unless it is a loud noise.
  • The person breathes in a slow, rhythmic pattern.
  • The person’s muscles are completely relaxed. If sitting up, the person may fall out of his or her chair as sleep deepens.
  • During sleep, the person occasionally rolls over or rearranges his or her body. This happens approximately once or twice an hour. This may be the body’s way of making sure that no part of the body or skin has its circulation cut off for too long a period of time.

In addition to these outward signs, the heart slows down and the brain does some pretty funky things (we’ll get to this later).

In other words, a sleeping person is unconscious to most things happening in the environment. The biggest difference between someone who is asleep and someone who has fainted or gone into a coma is the fact that a sleeping person can be aroused if the stimulus is strong enough. If you shake the person, yell loudly or flash a bright light, a sleeping person will wake up.

For any animal living in the wild, it just doesn’t seem very smart to design in a mandatory eight-hour period of near-total unconsciousness every day. Yet that is exactly what evolution has done. So there must be a pretty good reason for it!

Reptiles, birds and mammals all sleep. That is, they become unconscious to their surroundings for periods of time. Some fish and amphibians reduce their awareness but do not ever become unconscious like the higher vertebrates do. Insects do not appear to sleep, although they may become inactive in daylight or darkness.

By studying brainwaves, it is known that reptiles do not dream. Birds dream a little. Mammals all dream during sleep.

Different animals sleep in different ways. Some animals, like humans, prefer to sleep in one long session. Other animals (dogs, for example) like to sleep in many short bursts. Some sleep at night, while others sleep during the day.

Really?

Cows can sleep while standing up, but they only dream if they lie down.

Whales and dolphins are "conscious breathers," and they need to keep breathing while they sleep, so only one half of the brain sleeps at a time. (Click here for details.)

 

 

睡觉是人类最有趣的一件事情,无论如何你总是要睡觉!你有没有想过为什么?还有你做那些疯狂的梦?总是那些坏人在追你,而你却没法跑或者求救之类的。它们有什么意义吗?
如果你曾经为为什么人要睡觉或者什么引起做梦而感到疑惑的话,那么就接着读下去,这篇文章会告诉你关于睡眠的一些事情。
睡眠的特征
我们都知道睡觉是个什么样子–我们从以下特征判断一个人正在睡觉:

  • 如果可能的话,这个人会躺下来。
  • 他的眼睛是闭着的。
  • 除非声音很大,这个人听不见任何声音。
  • 这个人的呼吸缓慢而有节。
  • 这个人的肌肉会彻底的放松。
  • 在睡觉的时候,这个人会偶尔翻一下身后者改变一下身体的姿势,这种情况一般半小时到一小时发生一次。这是身体的一种保证身体的任何一个部位不会因为过长时间的叠压而造成循环停止的保护措施。

除了这些外在的标志,心脏的跳动减缓,大脑也会做一些很有趣的事情。
简而言之,正在睡眠的人对周围的绝大多数事物是没有意识的。睡眠和昏迷的最大不同是睡眠会因为受到足够大的刺激而清醒过来,而昏迷不会。如果你摇动,大声的喊或者用强光照射,一个睡眠的人就会醒来。
对于在野外环境中生存的动物来说,为它们设计一个每天有八小时的意识全无的作息时间表显然是不明智的。既然是进化法则决定了动物如何进行睡眠,那么一定有他的原因。
爬行动物,鸟类和哺乳动物都进行睡眠,也就是说它们都会在一段时间内对周围环境失去知觉。一些鱼类和两栖类对环境不那么敏感,但是却从不像脊椎动物那样会变得全无知觉。昆虫看上去从不睡眠,但是它们可能会在阳关下或黑暗中变得不活跃。
通过研究脑电波,我们知道爬行动物不会做梦,鸟类会做一点,而所有的哺乳动物都会做梦。
不同的动物的睡眠方式也不同。有些动物,比如人类,睡眠的时间比较长;而有些动物,比如狗,会打很多小盹儿。有些动物晚上睡觉,有些则白天睡觉。
你知道吗?奶牛能站着睡觉,但是只在卧倒睡觉是才会做梦。鲸和海豚是“自觉呼吸者”,因此需要在睡觉时也保持呼吸,所以它们睡觉时实际上只有半个脑子在睡觉。


Logitech G25 racing wheel, cool!

Want more driving fun with real steering wheel and brake pedal? We can even learn how to drive with it!

 

G25 Racing Wheel六速换档杆,下按式倒档   为转弯选择准确的档位,或通过一次真实的“下按”动作来选择倒档
G25 Racing Wheel真皮方向盘  别具风格地驾驶体验!
G25 Racing Wheel自动换档模式  在6速模式和连续变速模式之间切换

G25 Racing Wheel罗技特有的踏板防滑系统  牢固地抓持在地毯上,在您疾速驰骋时为您提供可靠的驾驶体验!
G25 Racing Wheel不锈钢油门、制动  彻底消除弯曲现象,使您可以更精确地进行刹车和加速。离合器踏板的位置设计方便进行跟趾降档,使您可以进行快速换档并保持高水平转速。
G25 Racing Wheel11寸真皮方向盘  900度旋转范围、手工缝制皮革,这种方向盘可以为您提供真实的驾驶体验。双引擎力反馈装置保证运行顺畅、安静而且强劲。


Untitled

There is only about one week left in March and I still stuck at the first section of my thesis. As a famous Chinese saying goes: It’s the most difficult to get start. To conclude, there may be two reason for the delay of my plan. first, as one of my senior fellow told me, a good thesis really deserve some inspiration and hardwork. Second, I have to admit that the anxiety of degeneracy of programming skill are constantly distract my attention on thesis writing. I know I shouldn’t so worry about that because where won’t be to much coding work but I just can’t help thinking of that. I don’t intend to be a bug searcher forever, anyway.

The recent reading of "design patterns explained" really help me a lot. The biggest difference is the book tell us why should we use a pattern, which always confuse me before. This is very important for the patterns learner who want to turn the UML diagrams on the books into real good design in their own practice. 


The fun of telling the truth

Although I have to admit that I am not so good at it, but I decide to start translation column in this space. That means you will read some Chinese later on 😉  The decision has nothing to do with English practice, but the wiling of let you know something you probably don’t know, or partly know. Talking about information@ filtering, I can’t avoid the topic of the Great@ firewall. It’s so obvious that this stupid thing can not block anything from the people who really want to learn. The only function of it is to worse the reputation of our government. In the time with modern technology, Any wisdom managing power in this world should know that any attempt of cheating it’s citizen is useless and even dangours.


Pics – perfect storms

The beauty of the nature with astonishing power.